has seven distinct geographic weather and climatic regions (click
on each for a description). You can
get current weather forecasts from
State Meterological Service in
The countryside around Istanbul, Edirne, Bursa and
of Marmara is low hills and
rolling farmland excellent for fruit
orchards (apricots, grapes, peaches)
as well as vegetables, sunflowers and
of Bursa are higher mountains (2500+
averages 668 mm/26 inches per year;
temperatures range from a low of
-16C/3F in the depths of winter to
40C/104F on the hottest day in summer.
It's quite humid (average 73%).
region centered on İzmir is
a true breadbasket, with low
hills and higher mountains framing
fertile valleys full of rich alluvial
soil. The dependable summer sun
produces bumper crops of tobacco, sunflowers,
olives, figs, peaches, pears and apples.
averages 645 mm/25 inches per year;
temperatures range from -8C/18F to
43C/109F, with average humidity of
Turkey's southern shore is hemmed
in by high mountain ranges. There's
some beach from Fethiye to Antalya,
but east of Antalya the littoral broadens
into the fertile Pamphylian plain (which
is where you find Side)
fringed with white sand beach.
far east of Alanya the
mountains come down to the sea again,
all the way east to Antakya,
keeping this coast very hot and
humid in summer: maximum 45C/113F,
minimum -5C/23F; rainfall is 777
The center of Turkey is high
plateau (elevation 900m/3000 feet
of rolling steppe framed by mountain
ranges, some of which boast snow-capped
dormant volcanoes. (It was the volcanic Mt
Erciyes near Kayseri that
formed the Central Anatolian moonscape of Cappadocia.)
land produces summer and winter wheat
and other crops, and feeds millions
of grazing sheep. Temperatures range
from -25C/-13F to 40C/104F, with
rainfall of only 382 mm/15 inches
per year. The average humidity is
Turkey's Black Sea coast, 1700
km/1000 miles long, is surprisingly lush
and green because of its 781 mm/31
inches of annual rainfall dropped as
the winds crossing the Black Sea rise
to vault the coastal mountains.
cloudy much of the time, which
seems to suit the tobacco fields. Cherries
originated here, and are still
grown in abundance, as are hazelnuts (filberts),
of which Turkey supplies half the
lush grass feeds cattle which produce
Turkey's best milk, cream and
butter. The humid coast east
of Trabzon is
perfect for growing tea bushes.
In the steep evergreen-choked valleys
above, you might think you're in
Central Europe, though warmer.
range from -8C/18F to 40C/104F, with
an average humidity of 72%.
Mountainous, rugged and chilly,
eastern Turkey is an elemental place
where temperatures drop to -43C/-45F
in deep winter, and rise to 38C/100F
in summer, though the annual average
is just 9C/48F.
to September are the best months
to visit unless you're going skiing
at Palandöken just outside Erzurum.
is 560 mm/22 inches. It's relatively
poor country, with wheat fields,
fruit and nut orchards, and lots
of grazing sheep.
Down near Syria on the banks
of the rivers Tigris (at Diyarbakır)
and Euphrates (near Şanlıurfa)
it's hot most of the time: up
to 46C/115F in high summer (andunusuallya
low of -12C/10F some winters).
with only 576 mm/23 inches of rainfall,
but lots of water from the gigantic Southeast
Anatolia Project (GAP) irrigation
and hydroelectric power system centered
near Şanlıurfa. Crops love the heat
and grow fast. People go slow, and
mostly in the shade. The best
time to visit is anytime except
summer (mid-June through mid-September).